Sep 09, 2022

Osteoporosis in Indian Patients Undergoing Elective Arthroplasty and Spinal Procedures: An Observational Study



This is an observational study conducted to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients undergoing elective arthroplasty and spinal procedures in India.


This observational, multicentre study included both male and female patients. Their bone mineral density and fracture risk were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®: Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK), respectively, in compliance with the guidelines for Good Epidemiological Practice (ISRCTN: 14543098).


The study revealed that the majority (76.4%; 97/127) of the patients had low BMD; over one-third had osteoporosis (39.4%; 50/127) or osteopenia (37%; 47/127). Among those undergoing total knee replacement (TKR)/total hip replacement (THR), majority (75.6%; 59/78) had low BMD (osteoporosis: 38.5% {30/78}; osteopenia: 37.2% {29/78}). Among the patients undergoing spinal procedures, all except two (93.10%; 27/29) had low BMD, two-thirds had osteoporosis (65.5%; 19/29), and around one-fourth had osteopenia (27.6%; 8/29). Radial BMD measurements showed higher prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on FRAX score, nearly 30% of patients were at a high risk of hip fracture in the next 10 years. As per National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines, most (59.79%; 58/97) patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia met criteria for pharmacological treatment.


Regular preoperative bone health evaluation should be adopted and osteoporosis/osteopenia patients should be adequately managed pharmacologically in India.


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